vue2.0之axios使用详解

摘要:
用于并发请求的并发处理的帮助方法axios.allaxios.spread创建了一个实例。您可以使用自定义配置创建新的axios实例。axios.createvarinstance=axios.create;下面列出了实例方法的所有可用实例方法。指定的配置将与实例的配置合并。
axios

基于 Promise 的 HTTP 请求客户端,可同时在浏览器和 node.js 中使用

功能特性

  • 在浏览器中发送 XMLHttpRequests 请求
  • 在 node.js 中发送 http请求
  • 支持 Promise API
  • 拦截请求和响应
  • 转换请求和响应数据
  • 自动转换 JSON 数据
  • 客户端支持保护安全免受 XSRF 攻击

浏览器支持

Browser Matrix

安装

使用 bower:


使用 npm:

例子

发送一个 GET 请求

// Make a request for a user with a given ID
axios.get('/user?ID=12345')
  .then(function (response) {
    console.log(response);
  })
  .catch(function (response) {
    console.log(response);
  });

// Optionally the request above could also be done as
axios.get('/user', {
    params: {
      ID: 12345
    }
  })
  .then(function (response) {
    console.log(response);
  })
  .catch(function (response) {
    console.log(response);
  });

发送一个 POST 请求

axios.post('/user', {
    firstName: 'Fred',
    lastName: 'Flintstone'
  })
  .then(function (response) {
    console.log(response);
  })
  .catch(function (response) {
    console.log(response);
  });

发送多个并发请求

function getUserAccount() {
  return axios.get('/user/12345');
}

function getUserPermissions() {
  return axios.get('/user/12345/permissions');
}

axios.all([getUserAccount(), getUserPermissions()])
  .then(axios.spread(function (acct, perms) {
    // Both requests are now complete
  }));

axios API

可以通过给  axios(config)

// Send a POST request
axios({
  method: 'post',
  url: '/user/12345',
  data: {
    firstName: 'Fred',
    lastName: 'Flintstone'
  }
});
axios(url[, config])
// Sned a GET request (default method)
axios('/user/12345');

请求方法别名

为方便起见,我们为所有支持的请求方法都提供了别名

axios.get(url[, config])
axios.delete(url[, config])
axios.head(url[, config])
axios.post(url[, data[, config]])
axios.put(url[, data[, config]])
axios.patch(url[, data[, config]])
注意

当使用别名方法时, method 和 data 属性不需要在 config 参数里面指定。

并发

处理并发请求的帮助方法

axios.all(iterable)
axios.spread(callback)

创建一个实例

你可以用自定义配置创建一个新的 axios 实例。

axios.create([config])
var instance = axios.create({
  baseURL: 'https://some-domain.com/api/',
  timeout: 1000,
  headers: {'X-Custom-Header': 'foobar'}
});

实例方法

所有可用的实例方法都列在下面了,指定的配置将会和该实例的配置合并。

axios#request(config)
axios#get(url[, config])
axios#delete(url[, config])
axios#head(url[, config])
axios#post(url[, data[, config]])
axios#put(url[, data[, config]])
axios#patch(url[, data[, config]])

请求配置

下面是可用的请求配置项,只有 method ,默认的请求方法是 { // `url` is the server URL that will be used for the request url: '/user', // `method` is the request method to be used when making the request method: 'get', // default // `baseURL` will be prepended to `url` unless `url` is absolute. // It can be convenient to set `baseURL` for an instance of axios to pass relative URLs // to methods of that instance. baseURL: 'https://some-domain.com/api/', // `transformRequest` allows changes to the request data before it is sent to the server // This is only applicable for request methods 'PUT', 'POST', and 'PATCH' // The last function in the array must return a string or an ArrayBuffer transformRequest: [function (data) { // Do whatever you want to transform the data return data; }], // `transformResponse` allows changes to the response data to be made before // it is passed to then/catch transformResponse: [function (data) { // Do whatever you want to transform the data return data; }], // `headers` are custom headers to be sent headers: {'X-Requested-With': 'XMLHttpRequest'}, // `params` are the URL parameters to be sent with the request params: { ID: 12345 }, // `paramsSerializer` is an optional function in charge of serializing `params` // (e.g. https://www.npmjs.com/package/qs, http://api.jquery.com/jquery.param/) paramsSerializer: function(params) { return Qs.stringify(params, {arrayFormat: 'brackets'}) }, // `data` is the data to be sent as the request body // Only applicable for request methods 'PUT', 'POST', and 'PATCH' // When no `transformRequest` is set, must be a string, an ArrayBuffer or a hash data: { firstName: 'Fred' }, // `timeout` specifies the number of milliseconds before the request times out. // If the request takes longer than `timeout`, the request will be aborted. timeout: 1000, // `withCredentials` indicates whether or not cross-site Access-Control requests // should be made using credentials withCredentials: false, // default // `adapter` allows custom handling of requests which makes testing easier. // Call `resolve` or `reject` and supply a valid response (see [response docs](#response-api)). adapter: function (resolve, reject, config) { /* ... */ }, // `auth` indicates that HTTP Basic auth should be used, and supplies credentials. // This will set an `Authorization` header, overwriting any existing // `Authorization` custom headers you have set using `headers`. auth: { username: 'janedoe', password: 's00pers3cret' } // `responseType` indicates the type of data that the server will respond with // options are 'arraybuffer', 'blob', 'document', 'json', 'text' responseType: 'json', // default // `xsrfCookieName` is the name of the cookie to use as a value for xsrf token xsrfCookieName: 'XSRF-TOKEN', // default // `xsrfHeaderName` is the name of the http header that carries the xsrf token value xsrfHeaderName: 'X-XSRF-TOKEN', // default // `progress` allows handling of progress events for 'POST' and 'PUT uploads' // as well as 'GET' downloads progress: function(progressEvent) { // Do whatever you want with the native progress event } }

响应的数据结构

响应的数据包括下面的信息:


当使用 catch 时,
 你会收到下面的响应:
axios.get('/user/12345')
  .then(function(response) {
    console.log(response.data);
    console.log(response.status);
    console.log(response.statusText);
    console.log(response.headers);
    console.log(response.config);
});

默认配置

你可以为每一个请求指定默认配置。

全局 axios 默认配置

axios.defaults.baseURL = 'https://api.example.com';
axios.defaults.headers.common['Authorization'] = AUTH_TOKEN;
axios.defaults.headers.post['Content-Type'] = 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded';

自定义实例默认配置

// Set config defaults when creating the instance
var instance = axios.create({
  baseURL: 'https://api.example.com'
});

// Alter defaults after instance has been created
instance.defaults.headers.common['Authorization'] = AUTH_TOKEN;

配置的优先顺序

Config will be merged with an order of precedence. The order is library defaults found in defaults property of the instance, and finally config argument for the request. The latter will take precedence over the former. Here's an example.

// Create an instance using the config defaults provided by the library
// At this point the timeout config value is `0` as is the default for the library
var instance = axios.create();

// Override timeout default for the library
// Now all requests will wait 2.5 seconds before timing out
instance.defaults.timeout = 2500;

// Override timeout for this request as it's known to take a long time
instance.get('/longRequest', {
  timeout: 5000
}); 

拦截器

你可以在处理 catch 之前拦截请求和响应

// 添加一个请求拦截器
axios.interceptors.request.use(function (config) {
    // Do something before request is sent
    return config;
  }, function (error) {
    // Do something with request error
    return Promise.reject(error);
  });

// 添加一个响应拦截器
axios.interceptors.response.use(function (response) {
    // Do something with response data
    return response;
  }, function (error) {
    // Do something with response error
    return Promise.reject(error);
  });

移除一个拦截器:

var myInterceptor = axios.interceptors.request.use(function () {/*...*/});
axios.interceptors.request.eject(myInterceptor);

你可以给一个自定义的 axios 实例添加拦截器:

var instance = axios.create();
instance.interceptors.request.use(function () {/*...*/});

错误处理

axios.get('/user/12345')
  .catch(function (response) {
    if (response instanceof Error) {
      // Something happened in setting up the request that triggered an Error
      console.log('Error', response.message);
    } else {
      // The request was made, but the server responded with a status code
      // that falls out of the range of 2xx
      console.log(response.data);
      console.log(response.status);
      console.log(response.headers);
      console.log(response.config);
    }
  });

Promises

axios 依赖一个原生的 ES6 Promise 实现,如果你的浏览器环境不支持 ES6 Promises,你需要引入 polyfill

TypeScript

axios 包含一个 TypeScript 定义

Credits

axios is heavily inspired by the $http service provided in Angular. Ultimately axios is an effort to provide a standalone  License

MIT

转载:https://www.awesomes.cn/repo/mzabriskie/axios

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